如果你一直有规律, unprotected sex for one year and have not become pregnant, your doctor should initiate investigations or refer you to a fertility clinic. 如果你是35岁或以上, you may be referred for investigations after six months, as the chances of becoming pregnant declines with age and you may need prompt intervention to improve your chances of conceiving.
Many different health conditions and lifestyle factors can affect fertility, so you might need to undergo several types of tests and investigations as your doctors try to find out why you are not becoming pregnant. You and your partner will both need to undergo tests.
当你第一次看医生的时候, they will examine you for any signs of infection or gynaecological issues.
Your doctor will ask you about your periods, and you will have a blood test to check your progesterone levels to confirm that you are ovulating. 如果你的月经不规律, you may also have a blood test to check your follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and other hormone levels.
生育能力 issues are often caused by blocked 输卵管 or the 卵巢 not working as they should. Therefore, your doctor or fertility clinic will arrange tests to check both these functions. 内部扫描, 叫做经阴道扫描, is used to visualise the 卵巢, 输卵管, and 子宫 to check for abnormalities
In some particular types of scan, a dye can be injected into the 子宫 so that your sonographer can see whether it passes through both 输卵管 freely.
Your doctor or fertility clinic may also refer you for a laparoscopy (keyhole surgery) for further investigations.在腹腔镜检查中, your doctor looks inside the pelvis with a camera to check the health of your tubes, 子宫, 卵巢, 周围组织.
Your partner will have an initial examination from their doctor that includes checking the penis and testicles to check for any signs of medical issues that could be impacting fertility.
The next step of testing is to perform a semen analysis. Semen is the fluid released during ejaculation that carries the sperm.
Your partner will need to abstain from sex for 2-5 days before producing a semen sample. The laboratory will check the sperm count, 它有多健康, and how well it can propel itself forward (called sperm motility).
Your partner might be asked to repeat the test after some time as having two or more tests produces a more accurate result.
The most suitable fertility improvement treatment for you will depend on the findings of your investigations. There are three main areas of fertility treatment.
- Medication that stimulates the 卵巢 to encourage egg production and release.
- Assisted reproduction technologies (ART) including:
- 体外受精(IVF) where eggs are collected from the woman then mixed with sperm in a laboratory. One or two of the healthiest fertilised embryos are then put back into the 子宫 to implant.
- 宫内授精(IUI) where sperm is injected through the cervix and into the 子宫 at around the time of ovulation. If your 卵巢 are not ovulating reliably, you may need medication to help them.
- Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) where a sperm is placed directly into the egg under a microscope. ICSI is a suitable option when sperm quality or motility is an issue.
- Surgery to correct any abnormalities, such as removing scar tissue that may restrict the 输卵管 or remove fibroids.